Creatinol-O-Phosphate (COP®) is one of the key ingredients in the novel formulation for VPX's BANG! (RTD), NO-Shotgun and NO-SyntheSize! The data on COP is impressive because many of these studies have been conducted on human subjects. The full name for Creatinol-O-Phosphate or trademarked by VPX as COP®. COP is N-methyl-N-(beta-hydroxyethyl) guanidine O-phosphate. COP pre-treatment has been studied on the recovery of contractility of rat isolated heart after hypoxia or ischemia (i.e. lack of oxygen). Thus, it is suggested that Creatinol-O-Phosphate exerts its cardioprotective effect by an action on anaerobic glycolysis. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that absorption of COP administered intramuscularly! is complete. COP is distributed in all organs, and in particular, in the kidney, liver and myocardium or heart tissue. After being dephosphorylated, this COP is eliminated with urine. Dephosphorylation of COP occurs in the kidney and liver. COP crosses the membrane of the myocardial cell, concentrating in the cytosoluble fraction. The results of the toxicological studies confirm that COP has no side effects, is excellently tolerated and has a favorable therapeutic index.